SURVIVAL AND DEMOGRAPHIC FEATURES IN CHILDREN WITH ACUTE LYMPHOBLASTIC LEUKEMIA

Authors

  • Kani Kamal Mohammed College of Medicine, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.
  • Aso Faeq Salih Department of Paediatrics, College of Medicine, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.
  • Basil Kadhim Abdalla Hiwa Hospital, College of Medicine, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.17656/jsmc.10411

Keywords:

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL), Children, Demographic features, Five-year survival rate, Pediatrics, Sulaimani

Abstract

Background
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a malignant blood cancer of T-cell or B-cell lineages.


Objectives
The aim was to obtain local data on the demographic features of pediatric patients with ALL and correlate them with a five-year survival rate.


Patients and Methods
A retrospective cohort study was performed on 94 ALL pediatric patients aged 1-14 admitted to the Hiwa Hospital from 2014 to 2016. The diagnostic methods, clinical features, and histological and biochemical parameters were reviewed. Further, a five-year survival rate was assessed.


Results
The mean±SD (standard deviation) of patients’ ages at diagnosis was 5.2±3.1 years, ranging from 1 to 14. Males were 57.4%, and females were 42.6%, with a male-to-female ratio of (1.35:1). Most patients (61.7%) suffered from the low-risk (A), and the majority of patients (90.4%) were in remission. The five-year survival rate was 80.9%. The associations of age groups, gender, white blood cell (WBC) groups, risk groups, and post-induction status with a five-year survival rate were insignificant (p-values of >.05). The association of immunophenotyping with the five-year survival rate was statistically significant (p-value = .014).


Conclusion
The 5-year survival rate was 80.9% in the current study. Further, although the frequency of some characteristics was more than others, the associations of the patient characteristics with the five-year survival rates were insignificant, except for the association of the five-year survival rate with immunophenotyping which was significant.

References

Castro-ríos A, Reyes-morales H, Pelcastre-villafuerte BE, Rendón-macías ME, Fajardo-gutiérrez A. Socioeconomic inequalities in the survival of children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia insured by social security in Mexico : a study of the 2007 – 2009 cohorts. Int J Equity Heal. 2019;18(40):1–15. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12939-019-0956-8

Dixon SB, Chen Y, Yasui Y, Pui C, Hunger SP. Reduced Morbidity and Mortality in Survivors of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia : A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. J Clin Oncol. 2020;38(29):3418–29. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.00493

Hossain J, Xie L, Mccahan SM. Characterization of Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Survival Patterns by Age at Diagnosis. J Cancer Epidemiol. 2014;2014(Article ID 865979):1–9. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/865979

Muñoz-aguirre P, Huerta-gutierrez R, Zamora S, Mohar A, Vega-vega L, Hernández-ávila JE, et al. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia Survival in Children Covered by Seguro Popular in Mexico : A National Comprehensive Analysis 2005 – 2017 Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia Survival in Children Covered by Seguro Popular in Mexico : A National Comprehensive Analys. Heal Syst Reform. 2021;7(1):e1914897-10. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/23288604.2021.1914897

Tang J, Yu J, Cai J, Zhang L, Hu S, Gao J, et al. Prognostic factors for CNS control in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia treated without cranial irradiation. Blood. 2021;138(4):331–43. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020010438

Feng J, Cheng FWT, Chiang AKS, Lam GKS, Chow TTW, Ha SY, et al. Original Article Outcomes of Adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Hong Kong Med J. 2022;28:204–14. DOI: https://doi.org/10.12809/hkmj208914

Al Odda BKA, Al Odda ZBK, Al Odda GBK, Al Byatee ZJAH. Characteristics and Event-Free Survival in Pediatric Patients with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Sulaymaniyah, Kurdistan Region of Iraq. J Can Res Rev Rep. 2021;3(1):1–5. DOI: https://doi.org/10.47363/JCRR/2021(3)131

Jaza D, Sana M, Jalal D, Khudair A, Ibrahim A, Nasir M. The Outcome of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in 109 Adult Iraqi Patients. Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus. 2021;37(2):264–70. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12288-020-01345-1

Rashid BS, Jalal SD, Yassin AK, Hassan KM. Impact of clinical staging and demographic data (age and sex) on response to treatment and survival of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia patients in Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Iraqi J Hematol. 2021;10(2):102–7. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4103/ijh.ijh_11_21

Gh M, Rasouli MA, Fathi F, Student M, Ghaderi B, Nikkhoo B. Evaluation of the survival rate and its related factors in patients with leukaemia in Kurdistan Province. Sci J Kurdistan Univ Med Sci. 2018;23:12–20. DOI: https://doi.org/10.29252/sjku.23.2.12

Donmez AD, Isik P, Cetinkaya S, Yarali N. Bone loss in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia pediatric survivors. Eurasian J Med. 2019;51(1):38–41. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5152/eurasianjmed.2018.18196

Alecsa MS, Moscalu M, Trandafir LM, Ivanov AV, Rusu C, Miron IC. Outcomes in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia—A single-centre Romanian experience. J Clin Med. 2020;9(12):4052. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9124052

Jasanoff JH, Cowgill W. Indo-European languages [Internet]. Encyclopedia Britannica. [cited August 26th, 2022]. Available from: https://www.britannica.com/topic/Indo-European-languages

Yasmeen N, Ashraf S. Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia; epidemiology and clinicopathological features. J Pak Med Assoc. 2009;59(3):150–3.

Wenzinger C, Williams E, Gru AA. Updates in the Pathology of Precursor Lymphoid Neoplasms in the Revised Fourth Edition of the WHO Classification of Tumors of Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues. Curr Hematol Malig Rep. 2018;13(4):275–88. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11899-018-0456-8

Hunger SP, Lu X, Devidas M, Camitta BM, Gaynon PS, Winick NJ, et al. Improved survival for children and adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia between 1990 and 2005: A children's oncology group report. J Clin Oncol. 2012;30(14):1663–9. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2011.37.8018

Published

2023-06-21

How to Cite

1.
Mohammed K, Salih A, Abdalla B. SURVIVAL AND DEMOGRAPHIC FEATURES IN CHILDREN WITH ACUTE LYMPHOBLASTIC LEUKEMIA. JSMC [Internet]. 2023 Jun. 21 [cited 2024 Apr. 23];13(2):7. Available from: https://jsmc.univsul.edu.iq/index.php/jsmc/article/view/jsmc-10411

Similar Articles

1-10 of 413

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.

Most read articles by the same author(s)