• Dlovan Muhammad Fatih Jalal Cardiac Center, Erbil Health Directorate, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.
  • Nazar Ahmed Mahmood Community Health Department, College of Nursing, University of Kirkuk, Iraq.
  • Namir Ghanim Al-Tawil Community Department, College of Medicine, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.
  • Tariq Al-Hadithi Community Department, College of Medicine, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.



Ex-smokers, Male employees, Smoking cessation, Erbil, Iraq



In 2015, around 1.1 billion people were smokers, constituting 14.9% of the world population. Worldwide more than six million peoples die from the direct effects of tobacco. Smoking is still the most important preventable cause of illness and premature death. According to World Health Organization, smoking in Iraq was 25.8% among males and 2.5% among females.


To find out the proportion of ex-smokers in the studied sample, the ways of quitting smoking among ex-smokers, the quitting smoking experience among smokers, and the cause (s) of return back to smoking.


A cross-sectional study was carried out in Erbil city, including 500 male employees of the headquarters of three ministries, Health, Education and Planning. All of them were either smokers or ex-smokers. Data was collected by direct interview with participants, using a questionnaire designed by the researchers. SPSS version 18 was used for data entry and analysis. The Chi-square test of association was used to compare proportions. P values of ≤ 0.05 were considered statistically significant.


The mean age + SD was 39.2 + 11.6 years, ranging from 19 to 64 years. The proportion of those who quit successfully (ex-smokers) was 18 %. The majority (97.2%) of the studied sample had tried to quit smoking at least once in their life. The main reason behind quitting was anticipated health risks (66.3%). The majority (92.2%) stopped smoking suddenly. More than one third (38.5%) of those who ever tried to quit smoking had eagerness for cigarettes after quitting.


A considerable proportion of the studied sample have quit smoking, and the majority of them stopped smoking suddenly without the need for any intervention.


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How to Cite

Jalal D, Mahmood N, Al-Tawil N, Al-Hadithi T. SMOKING CESSATION EXPERIENCE IN A SAMPLE OF MALE EVER SMOKERS IN ERBIL CITY. JSMC [Internet]. 2022 Mar. 21 [cited 2024 Jul. 19];12(1):51-6. Available from:

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