• Yad Noori M. Othman Hiwa Cancer Hospital, Sulaimani Health Directorate, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.
  • Kosar Mohamed Ali College of Medicine, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.



Bronchogenic carcinoma, Bronchoscopy, Non-small cell lung cancer, Small cell lung cancer



Lung cancer is usually suspected in individuals who have an abnormal chest radiograph finding or have symptoms caused by either local or systemic effects of the tumour. The method and stage of diagnosis of suspected lung cancer depend on the type of lung cancer (i.e., small cell lung cancer [SCLC] or non-SCLC [NSCLC]), the size and location of the primary tumour, the presence of metastasis, and the overall clinical status of the patient.


To determine the stage and method of diagnosis of bronchogenic carcinoma in Hiwa cancer hospital.

Patients and Methods

A cross-sectional study, at which three hundred patients with lung cancer in Hiwa cancer hospital from 1st Jan. 2016 to 1st Feb. 2018 were evaluated, and as much as possible as data were collected and analyzed for stage, method, and histological type.


The mean age for lung cancer was 65.7±10.7 years. Male: female ratio was 3.4:1. Smoking was present in (88%) of cases. Most of our cases (61.7%) were diagnosed by bronchoscopy, and most of them were non-small cell lung cancer was stage III & IV. There was a significant relationship between the method of diagnosis and stages of lung cancer (P-value=0.016). 


Most of our cases were males between 60–69-year-old, and smokers, without a family history, they presented with cough and were diagnosed by bronchoscopy (wash & biopsy) with metastatic disease, and their histological type was Non-small cell.


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How to Cite

Othman Y, Ali K. STAGES AND METHODS OF DIAGNOSIS OF BRONCHOGENIC CARCINOMA IN HIWA CANCER HOSPITAL IN SULAIMANI CITY. JSMC [Internet]. 2021 Jun. 21 [cited 2024 Feb. 29];11(2):195-203. Available from:

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