• Husain T. Fatah Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University Of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.
  • Burhan M. Babakr Candidate Kurdistan Board of Internal Medicine, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.




Acute coronary syndrome, ST elevation myocardial infarctions, Non STEMI, Unstable angina



Acute coronary syndrome is relatively rare in young aged people but it is a serious condition may cause many complications including sudden cardiac death.


To assess the risk factors of ACS in those less than 45 years old.

Patients and Methods

This is a retrospective study that observed risk factor profiles of 40 cases of ACS who are younger than 45 years old and admitted to coronary care unit in Sulaimani.


The mean age was 40.9 years old .Male to female ratio was4.7:1 and 75% of the cases were ST elevation myocardial infarction STEMI), the other 25% of the cases were non ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) and unstable angina (UA).The most associated risk factor was smoking, in which 55% of the cases were smokers while 40% of the cases were diabetics. There was hypercholesterolemia in 37% of the cases, and 32.5% of the cases had family history of ACS.


In this study we found that male sex, smoking, dyslipidemia, and presence of family history are the most associated risk factors for developing ACS in young aged groups.


Kumar A, Cannon CP. Acute coronary syndromes: diagnosis and management, part I. InMayo Clinic Proceedings 2009 Oct 1 (Vol. 84, No. 10, pp. 917-938). Elsevier. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4065/84.10.917

Soeiro AD, Fernandes FL, Soeiro MC, Serrano Jr CV, Oliveira Jr MT. Clinical characteristics and long-term progression of young patients with acute coronary syndrome in Brazil. Einstein (Sao Paulo). 2015 Sep; 13(3):370-5. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/S1679-45082015AO3381

Maroszyńska-Dmoch EM, Wożakowska-Kapłon B. Clinical and angiographic characteristics of coronary artery disease in young adults: a single centre study. Kardiologia Polska (Polish Heart Journal). 2016; 74(4):314-21. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5603/KP.a2015.0178

Walker,B.(2014). Davidson’s principles and practice of medicine 22 nd ed.Edinburgh: Elsevier, p.599.

Sadowski M, Janion-Sadowska A, Gąsior M, Gierlotka M, Janion M, Poloński L. Higher mortality in women after ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in very young patients. Archives of medical science: AMS. 2013 Jun 20;9(3):427. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5114/aoms.2013.35324

Wang, A (2017). MKSAP 17 cardiovascular medicine.17th ed.Phil:American college of physi, p.2.;. TEXT

Esteban MR, Montero SM, Sánchez JJ, Hernández HP, Pérez JJ, Afonso JH. Acute coronary syndrome in the young: clinical characteristics, risk factors and prognosis. The open cardiovascular medicine journal. 2014;8:61. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2174/1874192401408010061

Bhardwaj R, Kandoria A, Sharma R. Myocardial infarction in young adults-risk factors and pattern of coronary artery involvement. Nigerian medical journal: journal of the Nigeria Medical Association. 2014 Jan;55(1):44. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4103/0300-1652.128161

Hoo FK, Foo YL, Lim SM, Ching SM, Boo YL. Acute coronary syndrome in young adults from a Malaysian tertiary care centre. Pakistan journal of medical sciences. 2016 Jul;32(4):841. DOI: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.324.9689

Memon A, Moody PM, Sugathan TN, El-Gerges N, Al-Bustan M, Al-Shatti A, Al-Jazzaf H. Epidemiology of smoking among Kuwaiti adults: prevalence, characteristics, and attitudes. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2000; 78:1306-15.

Jamil G, Jamil M, AlKhazraji H, Haque A, Chedid F, Balasubramanian M, Khairallah B, Qureshi A. Risk factor assessment of young patients with acute myocardial infarction. American journal of cardiovascular disease. 2013;3(3):170.

Panduranga P, Sulaiman K, Al-Zakwani I, Abdelrahman S. Acute coronary syndrome in young adults from oman: results from the gulf registry of acute coronary events. Heart views: the official journal of the Gulf Heart Association. 2010 Oct; 11(3):93. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4103/1995-705X.76799

Gudiño Gomezjurado A, Pujol Freitas B, Contreira Longatto F, Negrisoli J, Aguiar Sousa G. Acute coronary disease, prognosis and prevalence of risk factors in young adults. Medwave. 2017 Nov 9; 17(09). DOI: https://doi.org/10.5867/medwave.2017.09.7088

Wadkar A, Sathe A, Bohara D, Shah H, Mahajan A, Nathani P. Clinical & angiographic profile of young patients (< 40 years) with acute coronary syndrome. Journal of Indian College of Cardiology. 2014 Jun 1;4(2):95-100. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jicc.2014.02.009

Donahoe SM, Stewart GC, McCabe CH, Mohanavelu S, Murphy SA, Cannon CP, Antman EM. Diabetes and mortality following acute coronary syndromes. Jama. 2007 Aug 15; 298(7):765-75. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.298.7.765

Abdelaziz A, Fawzy MS. Prevalence and Pattern of Dyslipidemia In Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients Admitted to Medical Intensive Care Unit in Zagazig University Hospital, Egypt. Zagazig University Medical Journal. 2015 Mar 17; 20(3). DOI: https://doi.org/10.21608/zumj.2014.4401

González-Pacheco H, Vargas-Barrón J, Vallejo M, Piña-Reyna Y, Altamirano-Castillo A, Sánchez-Tapia P, Martínez-Sánchez C. Prevalence of conventional risk factors and lipid profiles in patients with acute coronary syndrome and significant coronary disease. Therapeutics and clinical risk management. 2014; 10:815. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2147/TCRM.S67945

Manurung D. Lipid profiles of acute coronary syndrome patients hospitalized in ICCU of Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital. Acta Med Indones. 2006; 38(4):196r201.

Faisal AW, Ayub M, Waseem T, Khan RS, Hasnain SS. Risk factors in young patients of acute myocardial infarction. Journal of Ayub Medical College Abbottabad. 2011 Sep 1; 23(3):10-3.

Ahmed MH, Awadalla H, Elmadhoun WM, Osman M, Noor SK, Almobarak AO. Prevalence and risk factors for acute coronary syndrome among sudanese individuals with diabetes: a population-based study. Cardiology research. 2017 Oct; 8(5):184 DOI: https://doi.org/10.14740/cr616w



How to Cite

Fatah H, Babakr B. RISK FACTORS OF ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME IN YOUNG AGED PEOPLE IN SULAIMANI. JSMC [Internet]. 2019 Mar. 21 [cited 2024 Jul. 20];9(1):61-6. Available from: https://jsmc.univsul.edu.iq/index.php/jsmc/article/view/jsmc-10191

Similar Articles

1-10 of 299

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.