• Kharman A. Faraj Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.




Ionizing radiation, Radiation protection, Biological effects, Diagnostic, Radiotherapy


Ionizing radiation was used in medicine broadly after the X-ray detection by Roentgen in 1895 and now has the main rule in diagnosis and treatment. Using radiation in diagnostic and therapy is beneficial for many people every day in the world; on the other hand, the radiation can penetrate the human body then make biological effects, minimize its deleterious effects, and balance between the benefit of the radiation and the risk should exist. 

During the practices, patients and medical staff may expose to radiation. Many national and international organizations have been worked to avoid overdose exposure to the patients and the staff through the important three keys, justification, optimization, and limitations. However, in some countries, mostly in developing countries, the medical staffs have little or no training in radiation protection. It was estimated that more than 90% using of ionizing radiation in medicine done by radiographers and radiological technologists. Their expertise, skill, care, and information can help them determine the allowable amount of radiation to the patients and protect themselves. 

Despite all the rules established by all organizations, insistence and confirmation for applying the rules in all diagnostic and radiotherapy departments at hospitals are necessary, especially in developing countries, to avoid unnecessary exposure to the patients and the staff. In addition, education, knowledge on the effects of the radiation, and traineeship of the medical staff involved in the diagnostic and treatment procedures are essential for the patient and medical staffs’ protection.


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How to Cite

Faraj K. RADIATION PROTECTION IN MEDICINE. JSMC [Internet]. 2021 Sep. 21 [cited 2024 May 28];11(3):253-61. Available from: https://jsmc.univsul.edu.iq/index.php/jsmc/article/view/jsmc-10309

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