• Omed H. K Abdulwahab Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.
  • Rasul A. Rasul Iraq Board Candidate of Internal Medicine, Ministry of Health, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.



Type 2 diabetes mellitus, Microalbuminuria, Diabetic nephropathy



Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide. Microalbuminuria is considered an early stage of diabetic nephropathy, as it is a predictor of cardiovascular disease among diabetic and non-diabetic subjects.


This study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors of microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetic patients.

Patients and Methods

A cross-sectional study was carried out at diabetes & endocrine clinic in Faruk Medical City - Sulaimanya from Feb. 2018 to Feb. 2019. Overall, 211 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were included. The patients were investigated & assessed for presence or absence of microalbuminuria by using Urine- Albumin-Creatinine Ratio (ACR) and for associated risk factors including {Age, Gender, Duration of diabetes mellitus (DM), fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, presence of hypertension, dyslipidemia, Body Mass Index (BMI), smoking, types of DM treatment and renal function}.


The Prevalence of microalbuminuria was 27.01%. Significant differences were found regarding mean age (56.75 vs. 53.95) (P=0.05), duration of diabetes (9.44 vs. 7.10 years) (P=<0.002), hypertension (P=0.003), the mean serum triglyceride (TG) level, (223.05 vs. 167.72) (P= 0.001) and HbA1c (P=0.006) in patients with microalbuminuria as compared to patients with normoalbuminuria respectively. However, there was no significant statistical correlation with the other variables, including gender, BMI, smoking, fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), type of DM treatment, and renal function.


Microalbuminuria is a common problem in type 2 diabetic patients. Advanced age, hypertension, poor glycemic control, long duration of diabetes, and serum triglyceride were risk factors for developing microalbuminuria.


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How to Cite

Abdulwahab O, Rasul R. PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS OF MICROALBUMINURIA IN TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. JSMC [Internet]. 2021 Sep. 21 [cited 2024 Apr. 17];11(3):343-50. Available from:

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