Abdullah S. Ibrahim a, Rebaz Lake b, Karokh H. Salih c, and Mohammed O. Mohammed d

a  Department of Medicine, Hawler Medical University, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.

b Faculty of Medical Specialties, Kurdistan Board for Medical specialties, Erbil, Iraq.

c Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq

d Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq

Submitted: 25/3/2019; Accepted: 18/6/2019; Published: 21/6/2019

DOI Link: https://doi.org/10.17656/jsmc.10198 



Esophageal carcinoma is the sixth in cancer incidence and cancer related deaths. There are marked geographic variations in the incidence of different types and etiology/risk factors for esophageal carcinoma. Better understanding of the etiology/ risk factors may suggest opportunity for its primary prevention. 


To assess the demographic characteristics, etiology and risk factors of patients with esophageal carcinoma at Kurdistan Center for Gastroenterology and Hepatology.

Materials and Methods

A cross sectional study extended from March 2014 to December 2015; during this period100 patients with histologically diagnosed as esophageal carcinoma (EC) were included. Details about the demographic characteristics and risk factors for esophageal carcinoma had been reviewed.


The mean age of the study population was 67±13.27 years. The male constituted 58% and female 42%, (75%) were Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and (25%) were Adenocarcinoma (AC). Up to 84% of AC cases were male (P value: 0.002). There was significant association beteewn type of esophageal cancer and tea drinking, temperature of tea and interval between tea being poured and drunken, P- value was 0.011, 0.031 and 0.001 respectively. There was no statistically significant association between types of EC and demographic characteristic, smoking and body mass index.


SCC was more common than AC; AC was more common in males. Drinking hot tea was associated with EC. Most patients were smoker and had low fruit and vegetable intake, with more dried and preserved foods intake. 


Esophageal carcinoma, Epidemiology, KCGH, Sulaimani.


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