Mohammed Abdalwahab Hassan a, Kameran H. Ismail b, Zhian S. Ramzi c, and Tariq S. Al-Hadithi b

a Directorate of Health, Sulaimani city 

b College of Medicine, Hawler Medical University

c College of Medicine, Sulaimani University

Submitted: 19/6/2017; Accepted: 7/2/2018; Published 15/4/2018

DOI Link: https://doi.org/10.17656/jsmc.10150 



The risk of developing colorectal cancer is influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. Globally, colorectal cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in males and the second in females. 


This study was conducted to determine the risk factors of colorectal cancer in a sample of colorectal cancer patients in Sulaimani city.


A case-control study was carried out between December, 2014 and March, 2016. The cases were interviewed in Hewa hospital in Sulaimani city, which is the only health institution dealing with cancer patients in the city. A sample of 200 cases whom diagnosed and registered at the hospital was selected. Those cases were compared with 400 controls free from cancer matched in age (± 2 years) and gender. Controls were collected from patients attending Karezawshk and Xabat public clinics.


Patients with colorectal cancer have a mean ± SD age of 53.85 ± 15.9 years (ranged from 18 to 90 years) and the controls have a mean ± SD age of 53.69 ± 13.7 years (ranged from 19 to 87 years). Male: female ratio was 1.1:1. Logistic regression analysis revealed that there are positive statistical significant associations of colorectal cancer with family history of CRC (OR=8.489, 95% CI=3.285-21.941), smoking (OR=3.392, 95% CI=1.774-6.485), overweight and obesity (OR=6.034, 95% CI=3.386-10.755), drinking of carbonated beverages (OR=5.822, 95% CI=3.286-10.314) and canned juice (OR=3.448, 95% CI=1.972-6.028). However, negative statistical significant association between colorectal cancer and practicing exercise (OR=0.535, 95% CI= 0.290-0.987) and drinking of fresh juice (OR=0.283, 95% CI=0.163-0.491) was detected. 


The most common risk factors for colorectal cancer are family history of colorectal cancer, smoking, overweight, obesity, drinking of carbonated beverages, and canned juice, while practicing exercise and drinking of fresh juice are decreasing the risk for colorectal cancer.


Colorectal cancer, Risk factor, Sulaimania, Iraq.


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