Parween R. Abdulla a, Bahez O. Ismael a, Kadhim F. Namiq b, Zmnako A. Awrahman a, and Shanya B. Sadiq a

a Molecular Biology and Health Department, Kurdistan Institution for Strategic Studies and Scientific Research, Qirga, Sulaimani, 46001, Kurdistan-Iraq. 

b Hiwa Cancer Hospital, Sulaimani, KRG, Iraq. 

Submitted: 16/10/2017; Accepted: 9/1/2018; Published 15/4/2018

DOI Link: https://doi.org/10.17656/jsmc.10147 



Insulin-like growth factor -1 (IGF-1) has mitogenic and antiapoptotic effects on breast cancer cells. High-circulating IGF-1 was found to be associated with increased risk of breast cancer in several previous epidemiological studies, mostly conducted in the Caucasian populations. Little is known about the association between IGF-1 and breast cancer in Kurdish women whose dietary habits and genetic basis differ considerably from their Caucasian counterparts. IGF-1 levels can vary substantially among individuals and have been shown to be regulated in part by diet, age, lifestyle and anthropometric indices. Nutrition and energy balance have an important influence on IGF-1 levels which are decreased in energy-restricted diets and transiently increased with intense physical activity. Despite the number of factors that can influence IGF-1 levels, it has been estimated that up to 60% of the variability has a genetic basis, also age have been shown in some studies to be an important factor. Determinants of IGF-1 levels within racial and ethnic groups are unclear.

Research goal 

To investigate the association between IGF-1 and breast cancer in Kurdish women. 


a population-based case-control study was conducted to assess the associations of IGF-1 with breast cancer risk in Kurdish women. The study included 131 incidents of premenopausal ER (+) and PR(+) breast cancer patients diagnosed between June 2016 and March 2017 at Hiwa Cancer Hospital, Slemani, Kurdistan of Iraq and 130 age-matched controls selected randomly from the general population at Marital Screening Center/ Slemani General Hospital.


The results showed no statistically significant differences exist between the case and control in this study.


We have investigated a lack of correlation between circulating IGF-1 levels and breast cancer among Kurdish women patients.


Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, Breast cancer, Case-control study, Sulaimani.


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