INDUCED HYPERTENSION AND GESTATIONAL DIABETES AMONG PREGNANT MOTHERS ATTENDING PRIMARY HEALTH CARE CENTERS IN ERBIL CITY
Nazar Ali Sherin Doski a, Rukhosh Ishaq Mikha b and Jawdat Mamand Al-Hag Baker a
a College of Nursing, Hawler Medical University.
b Koya Medical Institute, Hawler polytechnic University.
Submitted: 18/10/2016; Accepted: 24/1/2017; Published: 1/6/2017
DOI Link: https://doi.org/10.17656/jsmc.10106
Pregnancy induced hypertension and gestational diabetes represent the most common medical complications of pregnancy and a major cause of maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity worldwide. Gestational diabetes have has been shown to have a significantly higher risk of having a pregnancy complicated disease of mixed etiology when compared to women with normal carbohydrate metabolism, gestational diabetes mellitus is also relatively common and affects 3–5% of pregnancies, resulting in a variety of complications that primarily affect the fetus, including, stillbirth, jaundice, and respiratory distress syndrome.
This study aimed to determine the pregnancy induced hypertension and gestational diabetes among pregnant women attending primary health care center in Erbil city and to identify the relationship between pregnancy-Induced hypertension, gestational diabetes with some demographic characteristics (age, age of marriage, occupation and level of education).
The study is descriptive study, the sample was composed of 350 pregnant women who had been attended to primary health care center in Erbil from the period 1/4/2016 to 1/9/2016, a constructed questionnaires was used to obtain the pregnancy induced hypertension and gestational diabetes among pregnant women, and the interview was used as methods of data collection and data was analyzed using SPSS version 18.
The results shows the highest age of pregnant women were between age group (18-34) years old, pregnancy induced hypertension and gestational diabetes were represented (2%) of the study sample, and there was no significant association between age group and educational level with induced hypertension and diabetes mellitus (P-value = 0.156, 0.549,and hypertension (P-value = 0.156, P-value = 0.906)
The prevalence of induced hypertension and gestational diabetes was not high and there was no any association between induced hypertension and gestational diabetes with all variables.
Hypertension, Diabetes, Pregnancy, Primary health care centers, Erbil city.
1- Chris L, Bryson L, George N, Ioannou I, Stephen J, Rulyak and Cathy C. Association between Gestational Diabetes and Pregnancy-induced Hypertension.(aje) American Journal of Epidemiology.2013: 157(12)
2- Stephen G, Mignon V, Charles S. Hypertensive disorders during pregnancy in pre-gestational diabetic women. Malta Medical Journal.2010:22 (2) p15-18.
3- Akhila N. R, Lingaraj J, Komala S. Study of Mean Platelet Volume in Gestational Hypertension and Normal Pregnancy.International Journal of Biomedical Research. 2015: 6(06): p366-369.
4. Sajida P, Qaiser j, Muhammad Z. Relationship between gestational diabetes and pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH).International Current Pharmaceutical Journal. October 2015, 4(11): 453-456.
5. Arash HN, Khadijeh M, Sara A, Zhila M, Farzaneh K. Comparison of incidence of pregnancy induced hypertension in gestational diabetes mellitus and healthy pregnant women. Iranian Journal of Diabetes and Lipid Disorders; 2011: Vol (10), pp 1- 9
6. Taha N. H. pregnancy at risk Erbil maternity and pediatric hospital Msc Thesis University of Salahadin collage of medicine 2003.p1-9
7. UNICEF. Progress for Children: A Report Card on Child Protection. [internet]. Available at www.childinfo.org/files/Progress_for_Children-No.8_EN.pdf, on August. 2010: 23
8. Geda N, and Lako T. A population based study on unintended pregnancy among married women in a district in Southern Ethiopia. Journal of Geography and Regional Planning. Available from: http://www.academicjournals.org/JGRP. 2011: 4 (7), pp: 417 - 427
9. Adham J. N. The effect of maternal age on pregnancy outcome. High diploma of science in obstetrics and gynecology Hawler medical University. 2008.
10. Ali, U.M. Relation of maternal age with pregnancy outcome among women attending the maternity teaching hospital in Erbil city. Higher diploma, thesis, University of Salahadin, College of Medicine .2012: 11.
11. Al-Ghezay A. Extent of risk factors among pregnasnt women in THI-QAR AT 2010. Thi-Qar Medical.Availablefrom:http://www.iasj.net/iasj?func=fulltext&aId=49358.Journal (TQMJ):20115(2):18-25.
12. Wolde Z, Segni H, Woldie M. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy Ethiop J Health Sci.; 2011.21(3): 147-54
13. Jaffar S. O. Diabetes Mellitus with pregnancy and fetal outcome. M.Sc, Thesis, Hawler Medical Universty, Erbil/ Iraq/ Kurdistan.2007.
14. Goldman J, Malone F, Vidaver J, Ball R, Nyberg, D. Comstock, C. Impact of maternal age on obstetric outcome. The American College of Obstetricians Gynecologists by Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. http://www.ncbi,nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15863534. 2005.
15. Heline A, kinnunen T, Raitanen J, Ahonen S, Virtanen SandL R. Iron intak haemoglobin and risk of gestational diabetes. http//bmjopen.bmj.com. MJ open.2012 (2)173:10-1136.
16. Dicianni G, Volpe L, Lencioni C, Miccoli R , Cuccuru I, Ghio A, Chatzianagnostou K, Bottone P, Teti G, Del S, and Benzi L. Prevalence and risk factors for gestational diabetes. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed. 2003. 62(2): 131-137. .
17. Olsson L, Ahlbom, A, Grill V, Midthjell K, and Carlssons S. High Levels of Education Are Associated With an Increased Risk of Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults. DIABETES CARE. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20937690. 2011. 34 (1):102-107.
© The Authors, published by University of Sulaimani, College of Medicine
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.