Ali Fadhil Alnajjar *, Taha A Alkarboly ** and Ali A Ramadhan ***

*    Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Sulaimani.

**  Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Sulaimani.

*** Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Duhok, Duhok.

Submitted: 10/10/2014; Accepted: 19/3/2015; Published 1/12/2015

DOI Link: https://doi.org/10.17656/jsmc.10072 



Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) has an increasing role in the management of pancreatico-biliary diseases. Local data regarding the use of ERCP are limited.


To review the indications, interventions and complications of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography.

Patients and Methods

This retrospective case series was carried out in Kurdistan center for gastroenterology and hepatology in Sulaimani city – Iraq from January 2010 to December 2010. Records of 290 patients were retrospectively evaluated to collect demographic, clinical and procedure related data.


The age range was 3-90 years (mean: 46.5 years), with a female to male ratio of 1.7:1. The most common indications for ERCP were choledocholithiasis (N=118, 40.7%) and pancreatico-biliary tumors (N=98, 33.8%). The mean duration of the ERCP procedure was 30 min (range: 15-45 min). Deep biliary cannulation was

successful in 266 patients (91.7%). Endoscopic sphincterotomy was the most common intervention performed (N=224, 84.2%), followed by stenting (N=92, 34.6%). The most common complication was pancreatitis (N=9, 3.1%) followed by bleeding (N=7, 2.4%). No deaths were reported.


Despite its associated morbidity and risk of mortality, ERCP is an important method in managing pancreaticobiliary diseases. Our indications, interventions and complications rates are comparable to those reported in other countries.


ERCP, Sulaimani, Endoscopic sphincterotomy, Choledocholithiasis.


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