PREVALENCE OF HUMAN INTESTINAL PARASITES IN SELECTED VEGETABLES IN SULAIMANI CITY
Shahnaz Abdulkader Ali * and Hersh Ahmad Ameen **
* Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Faculty of Medical sciences, University of Sulaimani.
Submitted: 15/12/2012; Accepted: 22/5/2013; Published 1/12/2013
DOI Link: https://doi.org/10.17656/jsmc.10034
Fresh vegetables are considered as an important part of healthy diet. In recent years, there has been an increase in number of reported cases of food borne illness linked to consuming fresh vegetables. Several surveys in different parts of the world showed that the vegetables can be agents for transmissions of protozoan cysts, oocysts and helminthes ova and larvae.
The aim of present study is to evaluate the prevalence of intestinal parasites such as ova, larvae, cysts, and oocysts in vegetables sold commercially in greengrocers in Sulaimani city which are consumed raw.
A total of 239 samples of five different vegetable types such as leek, celery, cress, green onion, lettuce were obtained from different markets. The collected plants were then examined for helminthes stages, protozoan cysts, and oocysts of intestinal parasites using centrifugation method and Baermann technique.
Out of 239 samples, 119(49.79%) were positive for parasitic stages, the highest percentage of contamination was detected in leek (64.17%) followed by celery (51.61%), cress (48.1%), lettuce 11 (33.33%), and Green onion (32%). The results show that vegetables were positive for different species of parasites; the most prevalent were the cysts of Entamoeba histolytica (14.66%), Rhabditiform larvae (12.44%), ova of Ascaris lumbricoides (12%), Entamoeba coli (12%), Taenia spp. (10%), while the lowest prevalent were ova of Ancylostoma spp. (0.88%), Oesophagostomum spp. (0.88%), and Protostrongylus spp. (0.44%). There was significant difference between prevalence of parasitic organisms among the vegetables.
The results show that vegetables could be a potential source of parasitic infection.
Vegetables, Intestinal parasites, Epidemiology, Markets, Sulaimani, Iraq.
1- Frazier WC and Westhoff DC (eds). Food Microbiology. T. M. H. Edition. Chapman & Hall, New York. 1998; 198 – 209.
2- Amoah P, Drechsel P, Abaidoo RC and Klutse A. Effectiveness of common and improved sanitary washing methods in selected cities of West Africa for the reduction of coliform bacteria and helminth eggs on vegetables. Tropical Medicine and International Health. 2007; 12: 40–50.
3- Choi DW, Ock MS, and Suh JW. Recent demonstration of helminth eggs and larvae from vegetables cultivating soil. The Korean Journal of Parasitology. 1982; 20: 83–92.
4-Coelho LM, Oliveira SM, Milman MH, Karasawa KA, and Santos RD. Detection of transmissible forms of enteroparasites in water and vegetables consumed at school in Sorocaba, Sao Paulo state, Brazil.
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropica. 2001; 34: 479–482.
5- Glenn LS, Clara Mae RM, Nikki SA, Gliceria BR. Assessing parasitic infestation of vegetables in selected markets in Metro Manila, Philippines. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease. 2012; 51-54.
6- Garcia, L. S. (ed) Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, 4th ed, ASM Press, Washington, D.C. 2001; 786–795.
7- Bowman D (ed). Parasitology for veterinarians, 9th ed.UK.2009; 297.
8- Kuzma JW and Bohnenblust SE (eds). Basic Statistics for the Health Sciences, 4th Edition Mountain View, California. 2001; 187-196.
9- Ali AS. An Epidemiological study of parasitic infections in stool specimen and correlation with waste water in Baghdad. The Journal of Duhok University. 2001; 13(1): 63-67.
10- Al-Megrin W. Prevalence intestinal parasites in leafy vegetables in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Tropical medicine. 2010; 5(2):20-23.
11- Malison M and Sia Su GL. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in selected vegetables at major public markets in Metro Manila, Philippines. Asian Pac J Trop. Med. 2009; 2(6): 37-39.
12- Al-Binali AM, Bello CS, El-Shewy K and Abdulla SE. The prevalence of parasites in commonly used leafy vegetables in South Western Saudi Arabia. Saudi Medical Journal. 2006; 27: 613–616.
13- Al-Salam SS and Tarazia HM. Wastewater reuse and helminthes infestation in Jordan: A case study proceedings of the Regional Wastewater Treatment and Reuse workshop, February, WHO Amman. 1992.
14- Srikanth R and Naik D. Prevalence of Giardiasis due to wastewater reuse for agriculture in the suburbs of Asmara city. Eriteria Int. J. Environ Health Res. 2004; 14:43-52.
15- Kozan E, Sevimi FK, Kose M, Eserm M and Cicek H. Examination of helminth contaminated wastewaters used for agricultural purpose in Afyonkarahisar. Turk Parasitol Derg. 2007; 31:197-200.
16- Gibson DI and Bray RA. The evolutionary expansion and host parasite relationship of the Digenea. Int. J. Parasitology. 1994; 24: 12 –26.
17- Robertson LJ, Gjerde B. Occurrence of parasites on fruits and vegetables in Norway. J Food Prot 2001; 64: 1793-1798.
18- Simoes M, Pisani B, Margues EGL, Prandi MAG, Martini MH, Chiarini PFT. Hygienic-sanitary conditions of vegetables and irrigation water from kitchen gardens in the municipality of Campinas, SP. Braz J Microbiology. 2001; 32: 331-333.
© The Authors, published by University of Sulaimani, College of Medicine
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.