Banaz M. Safar a, Basil K. Abdulla b, Rawand P. Shamoon c, Mohammed A.Hassan d, Akram M. Mohammed a, Ahmed K. Yassin e, and Najmaddin Khoshnaw a

KBMS-candidate, Dept. of Hematology, Hiwa Cancer hospital, Sulaymaniyah, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. 

b Dept. of Hematology, Hiwa Cancer hospital, Sulaymaniyah, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. 

c Dept. of Pathology, College of Medicine, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. 

d Cancer Control Program, Hiwa hospital, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.

e Dept. of Medicine, College of Medicine, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.


Submitted: 15/8/2020; Accepted: 5/6/2021; Published: 21/9/2021

DOI Link: https://doi.org/10.17656/jsmc.10322 



Multiple myeloma is a malignant proliferation of a single clone of plasma cells that produces monoclonal proteins. It is one of the most frequently diagnosed haematological malignancies.


To explore the epidemiologic and demographic characteristics of multiple myeloma patients in this area and to study their relationship with the stage of the disease.

Subject and Methods

In this retrospective study, 176 multiple myeloma patients from the three governorates of the Iraqi Kurdistan region were diagnosed from June 2013 to December 2018. Their demographic and clinical characteristics and their laboratory and radiological results were analyzed and correlated with the disease stage.


The patients’ median age at diagnosis was 61 years with a range of 35-89 years. The male to female ratio was 1.37:1. The majority of patients were of low social status from the urban areas. Bone pain was the most common presenting symptom encountered in 79% of patients. At the time of diagnosis, anaemia, pathological fractures, renal impairment, and infections were encountered in 62.55%, 21%, 19.9%, and 4.5%, respectively. At the time of diagnosis, 50.6% of the patients had stage II disease, 36.9% had stage III, and 12.5% had stages I disease. The demographic features did not have any significant relation with the stage of the disease.


Multiple myeloma patients in our locality are younger than what has been so far reported from the western world. Half of our cases presented with stage II disease.


Multiple myeloma; Renal impairment; Pathological fracture; Iraqi Kurdistan.


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