Dereen Najat a and Lana Karim b

a Chemistry Department, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region/ Iraq.

b Pharmacy School, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region/ Iraq.

Submitted: 23/2/2020; Accepted: 9/6/2020; Published: 21/3/2021

DOI Link: https://doi.org/10.17656/jsmc.10287 



In beta-thalassemia, major patients usually have anemia and iron overload which affects the function of many organs such as the heart, liver, and kidneys. Many previous studies concentrated on heart and liver complications, but fewer researches have focused on kidney dysfunction.


Our main aim was to study renal dysfunction in BTM patients in the Sulaimani thalassemia center, using both novel urinary dysfunction markers (cystatin C) and traditional urine biomarkers.


This study was a case-control study (101 thalassemic patients and 97 controls). We studied the hematological parameters of the patients; we also assessed kidney function using cystatin c, serum creatinine, and blood urea and albumin creatinine ratio. T-test was used to assess the difference between study and control groups.


Our results for the thalassemic group were as follow; serum iron levels were 240.27 (std.= ±80.80) µg/dl, mean serum ferritin was 1559.32 (std= ±1066.02) ng/ml; mean haemoglobin levels were 7.99 (std=± 1.14). The mean blood urea was 26.13 mg/dl (std.= ±7.38), serum creatinine was 0.43 mg/dl (std.=±0.16). The mean urinary albumin creatinine ratio was 271.14 mg/g (std=±131.23); mean eGFR (creatinine) was 170.0 (std.=101.1); mean eGFR (cystatin c) was 76.7 ml/min/1.73 (std.=±39.5).


Our results showed the majority of BTM were anaemic and suffered from iron overload despite the use of iron chelating agents. Our kidney function tests showed that although traditional urinary markers doesn’t show kidney damage, the novel biomarker cystatin C showed BTM might have early kidney damage.


ICystatin C; Beta thalassemia major; Kidney dysfunction; eGFR; Biomarker.


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