Mohammed Jazaa Ahmed a, Adnan M Hassan b, and Alan Abdulla Abdulrahman b

a Candidate of KBMS Pediatrics; Sulaimani Health directorate, Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.

b Department of Paediatrics, College of Medicine, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. 


Submitted: 11/7/2019; Accepted: 27/7/2020; Published: 21/9/2020

DOI Link: https://doi.org/10.17656/jsmc.10264 



Infant of diabetic mother (IDM) is those infants born to mothers who suffered diabetes mellitus. There are two types of IDM, Gestational diabetes and Pregestaional diabetes. Both have the effects on morphogenesis of infants’ cardiovascular system and increase the risk of congenital heart disease.


To find out the incidence of congenital heart disease among infants of pregestational diabetic mothers.

Patients and Methods

In a prospective study that included 32 infants of pregestational diabetic mother (PGDM) age less than 7 days at the neonatal intensive care unit NICU of Sulaimani-Shar hospital and NICU of Sulaimani-Maternity hospital during the period April 1st, 2018 to March 31st, 2019.Echocardiography and abdominal ultrasound were done for all babies. 


There were 32 infants of PGDM during the study period. Mean mothers’ age was 35.43±6.49, Last hemoglobin A1C (mean±SD) 7.23±1.17. Males and females were 17(53.1%) and 15(46.9%) respectively. Gestational age; 21 (65.6%) were term and 11 (34.4%) were preterm. Birth weight (mean±SD) 3.45±0.69. Twenty-eight (87.5%) were delivered by caesarian section C/S and 4 (12.5%) by normal vaginal delivery NVD. Echocardiography finding revealed 24 (75%) infants had CH, most common CHD were hypertrophic cardiomyopathy HCMP (40.5%), PDA (28%), ASD (18.9%). Most cases of CHD are term, male, delivered by caesarian section, mothers’ body mass index between 25 to 29.9, type 2 diabetic and less than 5 years diagnosed. Abdominal ultrasound showed 26(84.4%) were normal 5 (15.6%) were abnormal. 


According to our study, most of the newborn of PGDM had congenital heart disease. Most common CHDs were hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, PDA and septal defects.



Infants of diabetic mother; Congenital heart disease; Sulaimani.


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