• Tavan Taha Hama Saeed Ministry of Health, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.
  • Mezjda Ismail Rashaan Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.
  • Nizar Mohamed Tawfeeq Hamawandi Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.
  • Hawar Hassan Ali Naqshbandi Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.




Breast cancer, young women, case-control studies, risk factors


Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women throughout the world. Although uncommon, breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in young women.

To assess risk factors among young Kurdish women ≤ 40 in Sulaimani governorate.

Materials and Methods
A hospital-based, retrospective case-control study was conducted in two selected Sulaimani Hospitals, Hiwa Cancer Hospital and Breast Diseases Center, from January 1st, 2015, to December 31st, 2021. Eligible cases included those women ≤ 40 years of age, Kurdish nationality, histopathologically confirmed breast cancer, and random selection of a control group with no evidence of breast cancer of matched age. Data on reproductive characteristics were collected through a standardized questionnaire for both cases and controls.

The participants’ mean age was 32.23 years (SD ±3.98) and 34.55 years (SD ±5.99) for cases and controls, respectively. The results of multinomial logistic regression revealed that menarche at 12-14 years of age (OR= 2.33, 95% CI:1.41 - 3.86), low level of education (OR primary= 2.16, 95% CI:1.32 - 3.53), living in urban areas (OR= 2.75, 95% CI:1.87 - 4.05), unemployment (OR= 2.73, 95% CI:1.34 - 5.53), nulliparity (OR= 1.76, 95% CI:1.1 - 2.83), physical inactivity (OR nil= 5.03, 95% CI:1.09 - 23.3), and some dietary items as (red meat, chicken meat, fish meat) increased the odds of developing BC.

Nulliparity, early age at menarche, physical inactivity, and dietary patterns should be given priority during the assessment of breast cancer risk among young Kurdish-Iraqi women.


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How to Cite

Saeed T, Rashaan M, Hamawandi N, Naqshbandi H. RISK FACTORS OF BREAST CANCER AMONG YOUNG WOMEN IN SULAIMANI GOVERNORATE: A HOSPITALBASED CASE-CONTROL STUDY. JSMC [Internet]. 2023 Dec. 21 [cited 2024 Jul. 19];13(4):11. Available from: https://jsmc.univsul.edu.iq/index.php/jsmc/article/view/jsmc-10441

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