• Alaa H. A. Alkrush College of Medicine, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.
  • Sarhad Ahmed Mahmood Dialysis Department, Ministry of Health, Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.



Vitamin B 12 deficiency, Hemodialysis


Vitamin B12 is a water-soluble vitamin in several normal cellular functions. Low vitamin B12 has been associated with high concentrations of homocysteine and can lead to health complications. In addition to metabolic alteration and restricted food products allowable in renal failure patients, vitamin B12 is actively removed by hemodialysis with high flux membranes.

To detect the prevalence of vitamin B12 levels in hemodialysis patients and its relation to the duration of dialysis and daily protein intake.

This cross-section observational multicenter study was conducted on 169 hemodialysis patients in four Sulaimani Governorate centres. A questionnaire used to gather data included patient, dialysis, diet, and medication information. Blood investigation was taken to detect the vitamin B12 level and mean corpuscular volume.

Twenty-nine patients (17.1 %) had vitamin B12 deficiency. High flux filter hemodialysis was not used in all the centres included in this study. No cases with four hours of dialysis sessions had vitamin B12 deficiency. All the patients were on sub-optimum protein diet restriction. No cases of vitamin B12 deficiency were present in patients receiving protein of 0.6-0.7 gm/kg/day. All our patients had normochromic normocytic anaemia.

Our patients have an average percentage of vitamin B12 deficiency compared to other centres worldwide. The main causes of vitamin B12 deficiency in our patients were the sub-optimum restriction of protein diet and the sub-optimum dialysis.


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How to Cite

Alkrush A, Mahmood S. THE PREVALENCE OF VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENCY IN HEMODIALYSIS PATIENTS. JSMC [Internet]. 2023 Dec. 21 [cited 2024 Jul. 19];13(4):8. Available from:

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