THE SCROTAL COLOUR DOPPLER ULTRASOUND FINDINGS IN INFERTILE MEN FROM 2014 TO 2017 IN SULAYMANIYAH/ IRAQ

Authors

  • Baqi Rahim Rasul Shaheed Hemin Teaching Hospital, Sulaymaniyah Health Directorate, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.17656/jsmc.10432

Keywords:

Doppler ultrasound, male infertility, scrotum, varicocele, testicular atrophy

Abstract

Background
Male factor infertility is an increasing clinical problem. The use of Colour Doppler Ultrasonography (CDUS) in a noninvasive imaging technique can help diagnose testicular and extra-testicular abnormalities, especially in patients presented; CDUS is one of the best imaging modality choices in infertility evaluation.


Objective
To determine the capability of the CDUS in identifying the cause of male infertility.


Methods
A cross-sectional study was performed on 309 infertile males referred from Infertility Center /Sulaimani City/ Iraq; the study extended from the year 2014 till the end of 2017. Colour Doppler Ultrasound of the scrotum and its contents was done for each participant in the study group to allocate the possible cause of infertility for each of them. Siemens Acuson X 300- 2010 Ultrasound machine was used for scrotal examination; the type of probe is a linear probe with frequency VF 10-5 MHz.


Results
The Colour Doppler Ultrasound of the scrotum detected the presence of abnormal findings in 266/309 (86%) of infertile men; six abnormalities were identified, these are in descending frequency: varicocele 143/309 (46%), thick epididymis in 99/309 (32%) of patients, testicular atrophy in 73/309 (23%) of patients, thick spermatic cord in 28/309 (9%), and cystic transformation of rete testes which was present in 17 (5.5 %) cases.


Conclusion
Scrotal Colour Doppler ultrasound is an effective, safe, and easy method to detect the leading causes of male factor infertility; it can detect varicocele, thick epididymis, thick spermatic cord, testicular atrophy, cystic transformation of rete testes, or undescended testicle. It would be very beneficial if all male patients with infertility undergo ultrasonic examination of their scrotum.

References

Stojanović S, Govorcin M, Hadnadev D, Marusić G, Senicar S, Nikolić O. [The value of ultrasound in diagnosing male infertility]. Med Pregl. 2004; 57(11-12):551-5.

Ammar T, Sidhu PS, Wilkins CJ. Male infertility: the role of imaging in diagnosis and management. Br J Radiol. 2012; 85 Spec No 1(Spec Iss 1):S59-68.

Belenky A, Avrech OM, Bachar GN, Zuckerman Z, Rafael ZB, Fisch B, et al. Ultrasound-guided testicular sperm aspiration in azoospermic patients: a new sperm retrieval method for intracytoplasmic sperm injection. J Clin Ultrasound. 2001; 29(6):339–343.

Sihag P, Tandon A, Pal R, Jain BK, Bhatt S, Kaur S, et al. Sonography in male infertility: a look beyond the obvious. J Ultrasound. 2018; 21(3):265-276.

Kühn AL, Scortegagna E, Nowitzki KM, Kim YH. Ultrasonography of the scrotum in adults. Ultrasonography. 2016; 35(3):180-97.

Kim W, Rosen MA, Langer JE, Banner MP, Siegelman ES,

Ramchandani P. US–MR imaging correlation in pathologic conditions of the scrotum. Radiographics. 2007; 27(5):1239–1253.

Dogra VS, Gottlieb RH, Oka M, Rubens DJ. Sonography of the scrotum. Radiology. 2003; 227(1):18–36.

Minh Tam Lea, b Dac Nguyen Nguyenb Thi Thanh Tam Nguyenc Vu Quoc Huy Nguyenb Chi Kong Phamd Dinh Duong Lee Ngoc Thanh

Cora, b. Should Scrotal Color Doppler Ultrasound Be Routinely Indicated in Fertility Evaluation of Non-Azoospermic Men? Curr Urol 2020;14:211–218

Grasso M, Blanco S, Raber M, Nespoli L. Elastosonography of the testis: preliminary experience. Arch Ital Urol Androl. 2010; 82(3):160– 163.

Weidner W, Pilatz A, Altinkilic B. [Andrology: varicocele: an update]. Urologe A. 2010; 49 Suppl 1:163-5.

Zorba UO, Sanli OM, Tezer M, Erdemir F, Shavakhabov S, Kadioglu A. Effect of infertility duration on post varicocelectomy sperm counts and

pregnancy rates. Urology. 2009; 73(4):767–771.

Pilatz A, Altinkilic B, Köhler E, Marconi M, Weidner W. Color Doppler ultrasound imaging in varicoceles: Is the venous diameter sufficient for

predicting clinical and subclinical varicocele? World J Urol. 2011; 29(5):645–650

Zhao H, Yu C, He C, Mei C, Liao A, Huang D. The Immune Characteristics of the Epididymis and the Immune Pathway of the Epididymitis Caused by Different Pathogens. Front Immunol. 2020; 11:2115.

Nicholson A, Rait G, Murray-Thomas T, Hughes G, Mercer CH, Cassell J. Management of epididymalorchitis in primary care: results from a large UK primary care database. Br J Gen Pract. 2010; 60(579):e407-22.

Prokhorov AV. Deferentitis and funiculitis: classification, clinical picture and diagnosis (literature review). Experimental and clinical urology. 2014; 4:72–79.

Nistal M, Mate A, Paniagua R. Cystic transformation of the rete testis. Am J Surg Pathol. 1996; 20(10):1231-9.

Dogra VS, Gottlieb RH, Oka M, Rubens DJ. Sonography of the scrotum. Radiology. 2003; 227(1):18–36.

Hutson JM, Balic A, Nation T, Southwell B. Cryptorchidism. Semin Pediatr Surg. 2010; 19(3):215–224.

Leissner J, Filipas D, Wolf HK, Fisch M. The undescended testis: Considerations and impact on fertility. BJU Int. 1999; 83(8):885-91.

Published

2023-12-21

How to Cite

1.
Rasul B. THE SCROTAL COLOUR DOPPLER ULTRASOUND FINDINGS IN INFERTILE MEN FROM 2014 TO 2017 IN SULAYMANIYAH/ IRAQ. JSMC [Internet]. 2023 Dec. 21 [cited 2024 May 28];13(4):9. Available from: https://jsmc.univsul.edu.iq/index.php/jsmc/article/view/jsmc-10432

Similar Articles

1-10 of 102

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.