• Baqi Rahim Rasul Shaheed Hemin Teaching Hospital, Sulaymaniyah Health Directorate, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.



Doppler ultrasound, male infertility, scrotum, varicocele, testicular atrophy


Male factor infertility is an increasing clinical problem. The use of Colour Doppler Ultrasonography (CDUS) in a noninvasive imaging technique can help diagnose testicular and extra-testicular abnormalities, especially in patients presented; CDUS is one of the best imaging modality choices in infertility evaluation.

To determine the capability of the CDUS in identifying the cause of male infertility.

A cross-sectional study was performed on 309 infertile males referred from Infertility Center /Sulaimani City/ Iraq; the study extended from the year 2014 till the end of 2017. Colour Doppler Ultrasound of the scrotum and its contents was done for each participant in the study group to allocate the possible cause of infertility for each of them. Siemens Acuson X 300- 2010 Ultrasound machine was used for scrotal examination; the type of probe is a linear probe with frequency VF 10-5 MHz.

The Colour Doppler Ultrasound of the scrotum detected the presence of abnormal findings in 266/309 (86%) of infertile men; six abnormalities were identified, these are in descending frequency: varicocele 143/309 (46%), thick epididymis in 99/309 (32%) of patients, testicular atrophy in 73/309 (23%) of patients, thick spermatic cord in 28/309 (9%), and cystic transformation of rete testes which was present in 17 (5.5 %) cases.

Scrotal Colour Doppler ultrasound is an effective, safe, and easy method to detect the leading causes of male factor infertility; it can detect varicocele, thick epididymis, thick spermatic cord, testicular atrophy, cystic transformation of rete testes, or undescended testicle. It would be very beneficial if all male patients with infertility undergo ultrasonic examination of their scrotum.


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How to Cite

Rasul B. THE SCROTAL COLOUR DOPPLER ULTRASOUND FINDINGS IN INFERTILE MEN FROM 2014 TO 2017 IN SULAYMANIYAH/ IRAQ. JSMC [Internet]. 2023 Dec. 21 [cited 2024 May 28];13(4):9. Available from:

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