• Sanaa Othman Karim College of Nursing, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.
  • Kosar Muhamad Ali College of Medicine, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.



COPD, BMI, Sulaimani, Shar Teaching Hospital



Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a gradually developing illness including the pulmonary parenchyma or airways (or both) causing airflow obstruction. It is a progressive disease with various substantial extrapulmonary findings that may add suffering to the patients.


This study aims to find out the relation of Body Mass Index and duration of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Sulaimani Teaching Hospitals.

Patients and Methods

A cross sectional study, one hundred patients who were previously diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease participated in the study. The study was carried out during eight months (from 1st  August 2018 to 1st  March 2019) in Shahid Hemin and Shar Teaching Hospitals. The details of socio-demographic and clinical features with Body Mass Index and duration were analyzed. The questionnaire was filled out by direct interview. Data analyzed was performed using SPSS software version 22.0 and P-value less than 0.05 considered as significant.


The mean age was 60.14±13.1 years, 68% of them were male. Smoking was present in most cases. The majority of cases were obese (36%). There was a significant relationship between the duration of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and body mass index (P-value =0.008).


Conclusions: There is a significant relationship between the duration of COPD and BMI. There is a significant relationship between age and duration of COPD. There is a positive relationship between smoking and duration of COPD.


Suzanne C Lareau,Bonnie Fahy,Paula Meek, Angela Wang. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2019;199(1):1-2

Alvar G. Agusti, Claus Vogelmeier. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Diseases. 2018: 2018 report global the strategy for the diagnosis,management, and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.[internet]1-39: available on: https:// 2018-v6.0-FINAL-revised-20-Nov_WMS.pdf

MeiLan King Han, Mark T Dransfield, Fernando J Martinez. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Definition, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and staging. UpToDate website. 2019. Available on: obstructive-pulmonary-disease-definition-clinical manifestations-diagnosis-and-staging

Parul Pahal, Sandeep Sharm. Emphysema. NCBI.2019; 19(14):1565-1579 available in: https://www.

Allen Widysanto, George Mathew. Chronic bronchitis. NCBI. 2018; 23( 5 ):512-518 Available on:

Victor Kim, and Gerard J. Criner. Chronic Bronchitis and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2013;187(3): 228–237

Ann Pietrangelo. Everything You Need to Know About Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD).[internet] 2018 available on

Bartolome R. Celli, Marc Decramer, Jadwiga A. Wedzicha, Kevin C. Wilson, Alvar Agust´ı, Gerard J. Criner, et al. An Official American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society Statement: Research Questions in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2015; 191(7): e4–e27

Joaquim Gea, Sergi Pascual, Carme Casadevall, Mauricio Orozco-Levi, Esther Barreiro. Muscle dysfunction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: update on causes and biological findings. J Thorac Dis. 2015; 7(10): 418-438

World Health Organization. 2018. available on: text/en/

Jeong Uk Lim, Jae Ha Lee, Ju Sang Kim, Yong Il Hwang, Tae-Hyung Kim, Seong Yong Lim, et al. Comparison of World Health Organization and Asia Pacific body mass index classifications in COPD patients. International Journal of COPD.Korea. 2017;12: 2465–2475

Miguel J. Divo, Carlos Cabrera, Ciro Casanova, Jose M. Marin, Victor M. Pinto-Plata, Juan P. de-Torres,et al. Comorbidity Distribution, Clinical Expression, and Survival in COPD Patients with Different Body Mass Index. Journal of the COPD Foundation.The USA. 2014; 1(2): 229-238.

Canan Gunduz, Ozen K. Basoglu, and Mehmet Sezai Tasbakan. Prevalence of overlap syndrome in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients without sleep apnea symptoms. The Clinical Respiratory Journal. Turkey 2018; 12(1); 105-112.

Shiv Sagar Gupta, Dipti Gothi1, Gurpreet Narula, Joydeep Sircar. Correlation of BMI and oxygen saturation in stable COPD in Northern India. Lung India. 2014: 31 (1):29-35

Yumin Zhou, Dali Wang, Shengming Liu, Jiachun Lu, Jingping Zheng, Nanshan Zhong,et al. The Association between BMI and COPD: The Results of Two Population-based Studies in Guangzhou, China. Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. 2013; 10(5):1-6.

Thad E. Abrams, Mary Vaughan-Sarrazin, Vincent S. Fan, and Peter J. Kaboli. Geographic Isolation and the Risk for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Related Mortality A Cohort Study. Annals of Internal Medicine. U.S.2011;155:80-86.

Bradford E. Jackson, David B. Coultas, Sumihiro Suzuki, Karan P. Singh,Sejong Bae. Rural-Urban Disparities in Quality of Life Among Patients With COPD. The journal of rural health.texas. 2013; 29: s62-s69.

Eva Österlund Efraimsson, Birgitta Klang, Anna Ehrenberg, Kjell Larsson, Bjöörn Fossum & Lena Olai. Nurses’ and patients’ communication in smoking cessation at nurse-led COPD clinics in primary health care. European Clinical Respiratory Journal.Sweden.2015;2: 1-13

John Haughney, Kevin Gruffydd-Jones, June Roberts, Amanda J. Lee, Alison Hardwell, and Lorcan McGarvey. The distribution of COPD in UK general practice using the new GOLD classification. European Respiratory Journal.2014;43(4): 993–1002

Nailya N. Mazitova, Anatoly A. Saveliev, Zuhra M. Berheeva, and Nail Kh.Amirov. COPD AND OCCUPATION: A RETROSPECTIVE COHORT STUDY OF INDUSTRIAL WORKERS. Russian. 2012; available on: h t t p s : //p d f s . s e m a n t i c s c h o l a r . org/ 5e5c/41c8c5079f7bde26c5df12fa6e7c3874c553.pdf?_ga=2.22527675.1834791935.1564279930-1157938829.1564279930

Jonathan Q Purnell. Definitions, Classification, and Epidemiology of Obesity. NCBI. US. 2018. Available on:

Kleisiaris, C.; Papathanasioy, I.; Plaiti, M.; Manioy, M.; Toyrna, I.; Pissadaki, D. Health status assessment in patients with COPD: The contribution of BMI. Archives of Hellenic Medicine. 2014;31(5):599-605.

Y. Hwang, K.-S. Jung, S. Park, S. Jang, D.-G. kim, M.- G. Lee, et al. Clinical Characteristics of COPD Patients According To BMI. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. Korea. 2011;183:A2975. Available on: ajrccm conference.2011.183.1_MeetingAbstracts.A2975

Haejung Lee, Sungmin Kim, Yeonjung Lim, Hyejin Gwon, Yunseong Kim, Jong-Joon Ahn,et al. Nutritional status and disease severity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics.Korea. 2013;56: 518–523

Nurhan Sarioglu, Aylin Ozgen Alpaydin, Aysın Sakar Coskun, Pınar Celik, Beyhan Cengiz Ozyurt, Arzu Yorgancioglu. Relationship between BODE index, quality of life, and inflammatory cytokines in COPD patients. Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine. Turkey. 2010; 5(2): 84-91

Yong Liu, Roy A Pleasants, Janet B Croft, Anne G Wheaton, Khosrow Heidari, Ann M Malarcher, et al. Smoking duration, respiratory symptoms, and COPD in adults aged ≥45 years with a smoking history. International Journal of COPD. USA. 2015:10 1409–1416.



How to Cite


Most read articles by the same author(s)