• Talar A. Al-Barzanji Maternity Teaching Hospital, Sulaimani Directorate of Health, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.
  • Shlair Faeq Ghareeb Maternity Teaching Hospital, Sulaimani Directorate of Health, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.
  • Amanj K. Mohammed College of Medicine, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.



Cesarean section, Sulaimani, Pregnancy



There are many modes of delivery for pregnant women; the commonest of these include vaginal delivery (VD) with or without episiotomy, forceps delivery, and cesarean section (CS). Whenever possible it is preferable to encourage vaginal delivery to minimize the morbidities and mortalities that are associated with cesarean section. On the other hand, when doctors estimate the risk of VD, which could be high in certain conditions for the baby and/or the mother, cesarean section will be performed.


To determine the increasing rate of cesarean section in relation to vaginal delivery in Sulaimani Maternity Teaching Hospital from 2008 to 2018.

Patients and Methods

A retrospective study, data were collected from medical reports of pregnant ladies, delivered their babies either by vaginal delivery or cesarean section starting from January 2008 to December 2018. All data were retrieved from the department of statistics at the mentioned period of time were 180,625 cases, and numbers of each group of the patients were separately analyzed. As well as the primigravida and multigravida were sub grouped in each of these two major groups.


From the total cases, 123,836 cases (68.6%) were vaginal delivery, and 56,789 cases (31.4%) were cesarean section. There is a notable annual increase in the percentage of CS. However, the percentage of primigravida CS is declining annually. 


The rate of cesarean section in Sulaimani Maternity Teaching Hospital from 2008-2018 was 31.4% in relation to the vaginal delivery, which is regarded as a higher than the universal standard that has been put by the world health organization, which is between 10%-15%. And this rate is increasing annually.


Mamta Gupta, Vandana Saini. Caesarean Section: Mortality and Morbidity. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. 2018; 12(9):QE01-QE06 DOI:

Robert M. Silver, , Mark B. Landon, , Dwight J. Rouse, , Kenneth J. Leveno,, Catherine Y. Spong, , Elizabeth A. Thom, et al. Maternal Morbidity Associated With Multiple Repeat Cesarean Deliveries. Obstetrics & Gynecology. 2006; 107(6):1226-1232 DOI:

Ataollah Ghahiri and Mehrnoush Khosravi. Maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality rate in caesarean section and vaginal delivery. Adv Biomed Res. 2015; 4:193. Published online 2015 Sep 28. DOI:

Lumbiganon P, Laopaiboon M, Gülmezoglu AM, Souza JP, Taneepanichskul S, Ruyan P, et al. Method of delivery and pregnancy outcomes in Asia: the WHO global survey on maternal and perinatal health 2007-08. Lancet. 2010; 375(9713):490-9. DOI:

Carly Cassella. The World Health Organisation Has Called For a Reduction in C-Sections [Internet). Science alert; 2018 [cited 2019 Oct 2). Available from:

Mary Lou Moore, PhD. Reducing the Rate of Cesarean Birth. J Perinat Educ. 2002 Spring; 11(2): 41–43. DOI:

G. Nargund. Declining birth rate in Developed Countries: A radical policy re-think is required. Facts Views Vis Obgyn. 2009; 1(3):191–193.

Bryant Robey. The Birth Rate Decline in Developing Countries. Sage Journals. 1993; 22(4):221-224. DOI:

Vogel JP, Betrán AP, Vindevoghel N, Souza JP, Torloni MR, Zhang J, et al. WHO Multi-Country Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health Research Network. Use of the Robson classification to assess caesarean section trends in 21 countries: a secondary analysis of two WHO multicountry surveys. Lancet Glob Health. 2015; 3(5):260-70. DOI:

Prof Ties Boerma, Carine Ronsmans PH, Dessalegn Y Melesse ,Aluisio J D Barros , Fernando C Barros , Prof LiangJuan , et al. Global epidemiology of use of and disparities in caesarean sections. THE LANCET 2018; 392(10155):1341-1348. DOI:

Niall McCarthy. Which Countries Conduct The Most Caesarean Sections? [Internet). Statista; 2018 [cited 2019 Oct 2). Available from:

Gibbons L, Belizan JM, Lauer JA, Betran AP, Merialdi M, Althabe F. Inequities in the use of cesarean section deliveries in the world. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2012; 206(4):331.e1-19. DOI:

Pamela Di Giovanni, Tonia Garzarella, Giuseppe Di Martino, Francesco Saverio Schioppa, Ferdinando Romano & Tommaso Staniscia. Trend in primary caesarean delivery: a five-year experience in ABRUZZO, ITALY. BMC Health Services Research 2018; 18(1):514. DOI:



How to Cite

Al-Barzanji T, Ghareeb S, Mohammed A. INCREASING RATE OF CESAREAN SECTION IN SULAIMANI MATERNITY TEACHING HOSPITAL FOR THE PERIOD FROM 2008 TO 2018. JSMC [Internet]. 2020 Mar. 21 [cited 2024 Jun. 21];10(1):123-8. Available from:

Similar Articles

1-10 of 400

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.