• Hawar Hasan Ali Ghalib Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.



Breast cancer, Breast surgery, Complications



Mastectomy or wide local excision, and axillary clearance remain standard management option for majority of patients with breast cancer.


The aim of this study is to evaluate the frequency and pattern of complications following breast cancer surgery in our practice with comparison to results of international publications.

Materials and Methods

This retrospective descriptive study included 90 patients who underwent Modified Radical Mastectomy (MRM), Wide Local Excision (WLE), or Sentinel Lymph Node biopsy (SLN) at Sulaimani city by the author, which were eligible according to inclusion criteria. The interviews were conducted to collect data and record the information on the structured proforma questionnaire. Some information was extracted from patients’ medical records in the hospitals


Out of 90 patients, 63 (70%) of patients had seroma formation, 21 (23.2%) of them had lymphoedema, 16 (17.8%) of them were suffered from early or delayed upper arm pain, and in 4 (4.4%) of them wound infection was noticed.


Seroma is the most common complication of surgery for breast cancer whereas, lymphoedema is the second most common, followed by upper arm pain, and then wound infection.


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How to Cite

Ghalib HHAG. COMPLICATIONS AFTER SURGERY FOR INVASIVE BREAST CANCER: COHORT STUDY. JSMC [Internet]. 2016 Jun. 1 [cited 2024 Jul. 19];6(1):1-7. Available from:

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