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Haitham Issa AL-Banna a, Zhian Salah Ramzi b and Rawa Jamil Mohammed c 

a Hawler College of Medicine.
b Department of Community and Public Health, College of Medicine, University of Sulaimani. 
c Directorate of Health/Sulaimani.

Submitted: 28/2/2017; Accepted: 15/10/2017; Published: 1/11/2017



Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of metabolic disorders of carbohydrate, lipid, protein and electrolyte metabolism in which glucose is underutilized, producing hyperglycaemia and changes in lipid profile.


The aim of current study was to determine risk factors and demographic characteristics of patients havingT2DM in Sulaimani city.


Case control study started at December 2014 to March 2016. The cases were interviewed in diabetic and endocrine center in Sulaimani city, the sample size was 500 (200 cases diagnosed and registered in the center and 300 controls matched with age and gender). Interview done by a questionnaire designed for cases and control after taking verbal consent for the collection of relevant socio-demographic information, in addition to classical risk factors, such as smoking, high red meat intake, overweight /obesity, family history of T2DM and physical activity.


Nearly (59%) were female, among cases and controls 86.5% of cases were from urban area compared to 78% in control group. Having history of high cholesterol and triglyceride level, hypertension , smoking , less physical activity, eating processed red meat and fast food, watching TV > 6hr/day, history of 5 time eating rice or more /week , having history of soft drink consumption ,family history of T2DM and history of gestational diabetes and big baby were significantly associated with T2DM. Logistic regression analysis shows that family history (OR=20, P<0.001), obesity (OR=10.5, P<0.001) and sedentary lifestyle (OR=17.9,P<0.001) are good predictors of T2DM.


T2DM has modifiable risk factors which can be prevented or modified by adopting healthy lifestyle and exercise.


Diabetes Mellitus, Sedentary lifestyle, Obesity, Sulaimani City.

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