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Ismaeel H. A. Aghaways a, Hussanain H. Khudeir b, Lusan A. H. Flamerz bShyaw M. Ahmed a and Saywan Hayas Agha c

a Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, University of Sulaimani. 
b Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, University of Sulaimani. 
Sulaminani Direcotrate of Health. 

Submitted: 25/2/2017; Accepted: 15/10/2017; Published: 1/11/2017

DOI Link: 



Prostate carcer is the second most common cancer in men. The causes of the disease are essentially unknown, although hormones are involved, diet may exert an indirect influence, some genes potentially involved in hereditary prostate cancer (HPC) have been identified. Suspicion of prostate cancer may derive from elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and/or a suspicious Digital Rectal Examination (DRE) and suspicious Transrectal Ultrasound TRUS. However, for a definite diagnosis prostate biopsy is indicated


To determine the efficacy of various diagnostic tests (PSA, DRE, and TRUS) for detection of prostate cancer in comparison with prostate biopsy.

Material and Methods

Eighty six patients underwent PSA measurement, DRE, TRUS and prostate biopsy in the urological department of the Sulaimani Surgical Teaching Hospital between April, 2005 and February, 2006. 


Twenty four out of 86 patients who underwent biopsy were found to have a prostate cancer. Majority of patients (40) were between (70-79 years). 


Adenocarcinoma of prostate is the commonest histological type. The combined use of different tests (PSA, DRE, and TRUS) is better in early diagnosis of prostate cancer. The definitive diagnosis is achieved by prostate biopsy.


True-cut biopsy, Prostatic carcinoma, Digital rectal examination, Transrectal ultra sound,  Prstatic specific antigen, Positive predictive value.


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