Issues‎ > ‎Vol3n2‎ > ‎



Cheman A AL-Jmoor *, Jwan F Abdulkarim * and Jwan R Abdulaziz *

* School of Dentistry, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Sulaimani.

Submitted: 19/11/2012; Accepted: 25/8/2013Published 1/12/2013



Tooth loss is a significant problem related to general health and the quality of life. The prevalence of edentulism and number of remaining teeth per capita are commonly used as main indicators of dental health status in national surveys.


The aim of the present study was to evaluate the correlation between socioeconomic and educational level of the patient, smoking, and the general health status with the tooth loss among a sample of Sulaimani city residents.

Patients and Methods

Two hundred fifty patients attending Peramerd Dental Centre / Prosthetic Clinic for treatment were included in the study. A formal case sheet was used to record the required information. The patients were informed that the recorded information was required for a research purpose and it will be used in a survey and their consents and agreements were taken verbally. The relationship between the variables were investigated then evaluated.


The study results showed that; 158 of the patients were females (63.2%), 92 were male (36.8%). The age range of the patients was 30-60 years. Upper complete denture was (4.5) times more than lower complete denture, 222 (88.8%) of patients required removable partial denture in one or both arches. Insignificant difference was found in the construction of the complete denture in both arches when compared to one arch and related to age group. very highly significant difference were found in the number of patients wearing partial and or complete denture as related to socioeconomic/occupational status; (78.05%) of the complete denture patients were unemployed, (21.95%) were self employed and no one of the civil servant group required complete denture, while (44.14%) of the civil servant group demand removable partial denture. Patients with diabetes mellitus had the highest number of complete denture construction; 14 (34.1%), while the smokers had the highest number of missing teeth compared to the other health problems variables.


Socioeconomic level, smoking, and health problems as diabetes mellitus and hypertension, has a high influence upon the dental health and the number of the missing teeth in the mouth.


Tooth loss, Prosthodontic status, Socioeconomic level, Smoking, Sulaimani.


1- Steele JG, Sanders AE, Slade GD, Allen PF, Lahti S, Nuttall N, et al: How do age and tooth loss affect oral health impacts and quality of life? A study comparing two national samples. Community Dent Oral Epidemiology.2004; 32:107-14.

2- Hung HC, Colditz G, Joshipura KJ: The association between tooth loss and the self-reported intake of selected CVD-related nutrients and Foods among US women. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol.2005; 33:167-173.

3- Taguchi A, Sanada M, Suei Y, Ohtsuka M, Lee K, Tanimoto K, et al: Tooth loss is asso-ciated with an increased risk of hypertension in postmenopausal women. Hypertension 2004; 43:1297.

4- Armour BS, Swanson M, Waldman HB, Perlman SP. A profile of state-level differences in the oral health of people with and without disabilities, in the U.S., in 2004. Public Health Rep 2008;123(1):67–75.

5- Sabbah W, Tsakos G, Sheiham A, Watt RG. The role of health-related behaviors in the socioeconomic disparities in oral health. Soc Sci Med 2009;68(2):298–303.

6-Neidell M, Herzog K, Glied S. The association between community water fluoridation and adult tooth loss. Am J Public Health 2010;100(10):1980–5.

7- Sanders A, Spencer AJ. Social inequality in perceived oral health among adults in Aus-tralia, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 2004; 28(2): 159-166.

8- Tsakos G, Sheiham A, Iliffe S, Kharicha K, Harari D, Swift CG, et al: The impact of ed-ucational level on oral health-related quality of life in older people in London. Eur J Oral Sci, 2009; 117(3):286-92. 

9- Mack F, Mundt T, Budtz-Jorgensen E, Mojon P, Schwahn C, Bernhardt O, et al: Pros-thodontic Status among old adults in Pamerania, related to income, education level, and general health Int J Prosthodont, 2003; 16:313-8.

10- Suominen-Taipale AL, Alanen P, Helenius H.Nordblad A, Uutela A.: Edentulism among Finnish adults of working age, 1978-1997. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol, 1999; 27:353-365.

11- López R, Baelum V.: Gender differences in tooth loss among Chilean adolescents: so-cio-economic and behavioral correlates.Acta Odontol Scan, 2006; 64(3):169-76.

12- Al-Nakkash W A, Al-Hadithi K A. Prosthodontic needs for geriatric patients. Journal of the College of Dentistry, 2000, Vol 7, 37-49

13- WHO. Epidemiology, etiology & prevention of periodontal disease. World Health Or-gan Tech Rep Ser NO. 621. Geneva: WHO, 1978.

14- Emrich LJ; Shlossman M; Periodontal disease in non insulin – dependent diabetes mellitus. Genoc RJ J Of Periodontal, 1991; 62: 123-131.

15- Thorstensson H; Hugoson AJ.: Experience in adult long-duration insulin-dependent diabetic. clinical Periodontal disease periodont, 1993; 20:352-358.

16- Gale, Gillespie KM.: Diabetes and gender. Diabetes and Metabolism, Division of Medicine, University of Bristol, UK. Diabetologia.2001;44 (1):3-15.

17- Aziz H K. Prevalence of Teeth Loss and Its Relation to the Oral Health Behaviors among Type 2 Diabetic and Non Diabetic Patients, Karbala J. Med, 2010; 3(3):4.

18- Bascic M, Ciglar I, Granic M, Plancak D, Sutalo J. Dental status in a group of adult diabetic patients. Community Dent Oral Epidemiology, 1989; 17:313-316.

19- Arora M, Schwarz E, Sivaneswaran S, Banks EJ.: Cigarette smoking and tooth loss in a cohort of older Australians; the 45 and up study. Am. Dent. Assoc, 2010; 141(10): 1242-9.

20- Memon N, Moody P M, Sugathan T N, El-Gerges N, Al-Bustan M, Al –Shatti A, et al. Epidemiology of smoking among Kuwaiti adults: prevalence, characteristics, and attitudes. Bulletin of the World Health 
Organization, 2000; 78: 1306–1315.

21- Ojima M, Hanioka T, Tanaka K, and Aoyama H: Cigarette smoking and tooth loss ex-perience among young adults: A national record linkage study. BMC Public Health, 2007; 7:313.doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-7-313.

22- Hanioka T, Ojima M, Tanaka K, Matsuo K, Sato F and Tanaka H: Causal assessment of smoking and tooth loss: A systematic review of observational studies. BMC Public Health, 2011; 11:221 doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-221.10 Feb 11.