SAFETY AND EFFECTIVENESS OF FRACTIONAL ERBIUM-YAG (2940NM) LASER IN THE TREATMENT OF MELASMA IN SULAIMANIA CITY

Kazhan A. Tofiq a


Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.


Submitted: 11/7/2019; Accepted: 13/9/2020; Published: 21/9/2020

ABSTRACT


Background 

Melasma is acquired pigmentary disorder, characterized by brownish symmetrical patches, mostly in the sun-exposed areas of the skin. Many treatment modalities have been used, one of the advanced technologies attempted is Lasers. 


Objectives 

To assess the safety and effectiveness of Fractional Erbium(Er) -Yag laser treatment for Melasma, in addition to, determining the demographic and clinical criteria of the study group.


Patients and Methods

Thirty (30) patients diagnosed as Melasma, were included in our study. All patients interviewed and treated by Fractional Er-Yag Laser, which ranged from 1to 4 sessions. The demographic and clinical data, degree of patients’ satisfaction, and side effects were recorded and analyzed.

Results

Out of 30 patients, included in our study, 28 were females, their mean age was 33.7 years, 17 women were housewives, parity ranged between 0-4 children, only 3 patients were outdoor workers. Twenty (66.7%) patients were married, 9 were single. Daily sun exposure was more than 4hrs in 5 patients. Illness duration ranged from 6moths to 16 (mean 5.15) years. About 60% were previously treated. Two-thirds of the cases had one or more associated conditions like polycystic ovarian disease PCOD, Anemia, thyroid diseases, or were on oral contraceptive pills OCP. Areas affected were in 50% of all the three: Centro-facial, malar and mandibular. Fitzpatrick skin type of patients was type III in 18 (60%), 11 patients were type IV, and one was type II. One or more immediate side effects reported in all 30 (100%) patients. Long term side effects like hyperpigmentation happened only in one patient. Patients’ satisfaction about laser treatment was very good in 8 (26.7%) patients, good in 12 (40%), seven patients mentioned little improvement and one patient said that laser made his condition worse. 


Conclusion

Fractional Erbium-Yag Laser in the treatment of Melasma is a safe and effective therapeutic approach. 



KEYWORDS

Laser safety, Melasma, Fractional Laser.